Introduction ( 2 )
- What is the intent of the survey?
The intent of this survey is to show the assorted factors for the drawn-out pre-hospital hold in Afro-american with Acute myocardial infarction. Another intent of the survey is to show the mode in which perceived racism ( experience of racial favoritism ) affects the pre-hospital hold.
- Is the intent of the survey clearly presented?
The survey has demonstrated to a certain extent that several related factors such as cultural background. medical insurance. presence of a informant ( comparative or a household member during the onslaught ) . matrimonial position. general wellness position. presence of any systemic disease and perceived racism. make play a really of import function in protracting the clip period between the oncoming of the symptoms and hospitalization. However. farther surveies are required to supply more elaborate information about these factors.
Problem Statement ( 5 )
- What job was the survey conducted to decide?
The survey was conducted to find the factors associated with drawn-out pre-hospital hold in African-Americans with acute myocardial infarction than White persons. It was found that decease due to cardiovascular disease claims were significantly higher in African-Americans than any other group. Besides. the survey was besides conducted to show the extent to which perceived racism affects the pre-hospital hold in African-Americans with acute myocardial infarction.
- How is the job of import for nursing pattern?
Acute myocardial infarction is one of the chief causes of decease in both. work forces and adult females. life in developed states. Fatalities due to cardiovascular disease are significantly higher in African-Americans than any other racial group. The result following acute myocardial infarction varies depending on the celerity at which with reperfusion therapy is provided. In this intervention intercession. the blood supply to the bosom is restored back to normal.
Agents that chemically dissolve thrombi ( coagulums formed within the blood vass ) or spread out blood vass ( vasodilatives ) are administered. Besides. surgical processs such as angioplasty ( Reconstruction of the out of use arteria ) . catheterisation ( interpolation of an inflatable balloon-tipped cannular device ) or coronary arteria beltway ( grafting a subdivision of a vena ) . may besides be performed to reconstruct the blood supply to the cardiac tissues.
Reperfusion therapy seems to be most valuable when provided within one hr following the development of symptoms and marks of myocardial infarction. Delay in supplying intervention may play an of import function in increasing the morbidity and mortality rates of acute myocardial infarction. As African americans take longer clip in seeking intervention for the symptoms and marks of acute myocardial infarction than White persons. the result will decidedly be less favourable in African-Americans. Hence. steps to take down hold times can be instituted in African americans with acute myocardial infarction.
- Is the job statement clearly stated? Describe.
The hold in seeking intervention for the symptoms and marks of acute myocardial infarction are longer in African-Americans than Whites. As the period between the oncoming of the symptoms and marks of acute myocardial infarction and establishment of intervention plays a really critical function on the result of the upset. the specific factors associated with drawn-out pre-hospital hold in African-Americans should be determined. The job statement is clearly mentioned.
Research Question ( s )
- What is the research inquiry? If non stated. what would you state the research inquiry is?
A good research inquiry would be “To study the causes or factors associated with drawn-out pre-hospital hold in African-Americans with acute myocardial infarction” .
- What is the hypothesis? If non stated. what would you state the hypothesis is?
From the survey. it is clearly apparent that African-Americans take longer clip to seek exigency medical aid for acute myocardial infarction than Whites. However. perceived racism ( existent experience of racial favoritism ) did non play an of import function.
- What are the independent and dependent variables? Or. if it is a descriptive or correlational design. what are the research variables?
In this survey. a descriptive design is used. To find the factors associated with drawn-out pre-hospital holds independent T trials and qis square trials were used. The independent variable includes cultural group. The dependent variables include experience of racial favoritism. sex ( males and females ) . presence of a informant. insurance. matrimonial position. etc.
Reappraisal of Literature
- In what manner ( s ) does the literature reappraisal support the demand for this survey?
The literature obtained during the survey merely demonstrates the assorted factors that may protract the pre-hospital hold in African-Americans. These factors are nevertheless non specific to the Afro-american group merely. Further surveies are needed to demo how similar factors could play a function in protracting the pre-hospital hold in other racial groups.
- Does the reappraisal of literature usher you to the survey?
The reappraisal of the literature does steer to the survey. The reappraisal demonstrates the current incidence and mortality scenario of acute myocardial infarction in the Afro-american race. It besides demonstrates the demand for immediate reperfusion intervention. The survey besides shows how persons of the Afro-american race are at a greater hazard of developing acute myocardial infarction than White persons. However. more inside informations need to be provided.
- Are there bing spreads in the literature identified by the writer ( s ) ?
No. the spreads in the literature are non identified by the writer. The writer could hold besides tried to analyze other factors that could play an of import function in protracting pre-hospital holds such as educational degrees. socio-economic position. urban/rural divide. etc.
- Does the survey have a conceptual or theoretical model? If so. briefly describe the theoretical account or model?
The survey is based on a conceptual model. The model describes several factors associated with drawn-out pre-hospital hold such as cultural group. sex. general wellness position. insurance position. matrimonial position. etc. These variables can non be clearly defined. and merely the possible function they play. can be described.
- Is a principle stated for the conceptual/theoretical model? Explain
The assorted factors associated with drawn-out pre-hospital hold include sex. cultural group. general wellness position. insurance place. etc. As these can non be clearly defined and merely their possible functions are defined. a conceptual model is suggested.
- What survey design is used?
A descriptive design is being used.
- In what manner ( s ) is the design used an appropriate one?
The writer is warranting a phenomenon. Certain variables are being studied which can be determined earlier and later in clip.
- Were pilot survey findings used to plan the major survey?
No. pilot surveies were non being used. However. mentions were being made to old surveies.
- Name and describe at least two menaces to the internal cogency of the survey design.
The two menaces to the internal cogency of the survey design include history menace ( in which some historic event has occurred which makes the single aware ) and proving menace ( in which some signifier of pretest may do the single aware of any similar trials in future ) .
- Name and describe at least two menaces to the external cogency of the survey design.
Three menaces to the external cogency of the survey design include different people ( consequences of the survey may be due to unusual people ) . different topographic points ( were possibly the educational background was different ) or different clip ( at which the incidence of acute myocardial infarction were higher than normal ) .
- What are the immaterial variables in this survey? How are they being controlled for in this survey?
The immaterial variables in this survey are the clip period between the oncoming of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction and proviso of reperfusion therapy. African americans take significantly longer than Whites in seeking intervention for the symptoms of acute myocardial infarction ( 3. 2 hours to 2 hours ) .
Target Population. Sample. and Puting
- Who is the mark population for the survey?
The mark population of the survey is African-Americans who had acute myocardial infarction.
- What trying method was used?
Quota sampling is being used in this survey. The stratums of the population that have the standards are selected. From this stratum. convenience or judgement is used to choose the 64 topics for the survey.
- What are the sample inclusion and exclusion standards? If non stated. what would you say they are?
Inclusion standards– African-Americans. who had acute myocardial infarction. 18 old ages and older. who could understand and talk English. witting and decently oriented. life as in their communities independently. had a steady circulatory system.
Exclusion ( non mentioned )– White persons. single below 18 old ages of age. non-English speech production. those who were non decently oriented.
- In what manner ( s ) is the sample big plenty?
The survey was moderately big plenty as it was conducted in 5 infirmaries. in 2 countries of a province.
- In what manner ( s ) is the sample representative of the population?
The sample represents an of import part of the population. This group is one that acute myocardial infarction can happen. African americans are a major group of USA. Adults are being used in the survey. Besides. English-speaking part of the population is being studied.
- Is the puting appropriate for this survey? Explain your reply.
Yes. the scenes are appropriate for this survey. The survey s being conducted within a month after the person had myocardial infarction. This ensures full recovery from the onslaught and besides fresh memories of the event.
- Describe informations aggregation instrument/measurement tools.
Data was being collected by personal interview a month after the acute myocardial infarction.
- In what manner is the support for instrument cogency and dependability adequate for usage in this survey?
The survey was being conducted on persons who were alert. decently oriented. above 18 old ages of age and who could talk and understand English. The opportunity of the consequences being non dependable was less. However. some persons may non precisely retrieve the pre-hospital hold.
- In what manner ( s ) are the instruments used appropriate for this survey?
The instruments used were appropriate for the survey. as most of the inquiry being asked were based on general facts ( such as matrimonial position. insurance. general wellness position. etc ) .
- Describe processs used for informations aggregation.
Before carry oning the survey. blessing had been sought from the appropriate institutional reappraisal board and all other take parting groups. Then the patients who met the standards were being selected. from 5 infirmaries in 2 countries of the State. They were being studied from April. 2003 to June. 2004. The topics were suitably diagnosed for acute myocardial infarction based on the history. research lab trials. ECG and a surgical intercession. They were interviewed within a month after the onslaught. to guarantee that they had recovered to the full. every bit good as non forgotten inside informations of the event.
- Are the statistical trials used identified and the values reported?
Yes. statistical trials are being used in this survey. viz. : – independent T trials and qis square trials. Valuess were besides being provided from the 2 groups being compared ( viz. : – males V. females. insured V. non-insured. individual V. married. etc ) .
- Are the statistics appropriate for the degree of measuring of each variable. sample size. trying method. and research questions/hypotheses?
Yes the statistics are appropriate for each variable. sample size. trying method and research hypothesis.
- What is the degree of statistical significance used in construing the survey consequences? Was this stated or implied?
The consequences have been interpreted to the 0. 01 degree. therefore demoing that they are dependable. This was implied.
- What manner ( s ) have the rights of human topics been adequately protected during this survey?
The human topics were being adequately protected during the survey. No individuality of any topic has been given. 3 out of the 64 chosen from the survey were being allowed to choose out. The topics were being equal sum of clip to to the full retrieve from the acute myocardial infarction. Besides. merely persons above the age of 18 and those who were witting. qui vive and well-oriented were chosen.
- 2. was the research approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board or similar moralss reexamine commission?
Yes. merely after seeking anterior blessing from the appropriate institutional reappraisal board and all the participative groups. was the survey being conducted.
- What are two major strengths of the scientific asperity of the survey?
The two major strengths of the scientific asperity of this survey includes: –
- The sampling method used was a quota sampling method. in which the stratums of the population that have the standards are selected. From this stratum convenience or judgement is used to choose the 64 topics for the survey.
- Independent T trials and qis square trials were being employed to analyze the several factors associated with drawn-out pre-hospital hold.
These were most appropriate in this instance.
- Make the figures and tabular arraies illuminate the presentation of consequences?
The figures give us an exact thought of the function each and every factor was playing on the pre-hospital hold. The figures suggest that the findings are more dependable.
- Are study restrictions identified? If so. what are the two major restrictions of the scientific asperity of the survey?
The two major restrictions of the scientific asperity of this survey: –
- The opportunities of mistakes in this survey are high as the information collection methods are non appropriate ( capable may non retrieve the period of the pre-hospital hold ) .
- The factors associated with drawn-out pre-hospital holds may non be specific to the Afro-american group.
- The survey did non concentrate on several other associated factors such as socio-economic position. rural-urban divide. educational degrees. etc.
- In what manner ( s ) are the deductions of the survey findings allow?
The survey shows that the pre-hospital hold was longer than one hr. This meant that the person was non traveling to profit much from reperfusion therapy. The survey besides showed that perceived racism did non impact the pre-hospital hold much.
- What recommendations for nursing pattern and future research have been made?
Some of the recommendations that have been made include: –
- Educating the patients and their households.
- Lowering the pre-hospital clip.
- Further research in analyzing the function of other associated factors.
Summary and Conclusions
- In what manner ( s ) are the decisions of the survey appropriate?
The survey goes on to demo the present province of personal businesss in African-Americans. As the pre-hospital hold was significantly longer than one hr. they are non traveling to profit much from reperfusion therapy ( the benefits of such therapy is best when administered within an hr after the oncoming of symptoms and marks of acute myocardial infarction ) .
Besides. the survey has besides suggested that merely through equal instruction and guidance of the patients and their households. could the result be improved ( to enable shorter pre-hospital holds ) . The survey has non merely shown. the assorted factors that play an of import function in protracting the pre-hospital hold. but has besides suggested that such holds should be decreased in order to better the benefits. forecast and survival rates.
- Do the benefits of the survey outweigh the hazards?
Yes. the benefits of the survey decidedly outweigh the hazards. Many surveies conducted in the yesteryear have shown that African-Americans take longer clip than White persons to seek medical aid for the symptoms of acute myocardial infarction. However. it is the first survey that has demonstrated the assorted factors associated with drawn-out pre-hospital hold in African-Americans.
Presentation and Stylistic Aspects
- Does the rubric of the article accurately describe the survey? In what manner does it or does it non?
The rubric describes the survey. It demonstrates the assorted factors responsible for the protracting the pre-hospital hold in Afro-american with the symptoms of acute myocardial infarction. However. such factors may non be specific merely to the African-American Community. They could even be in other communities. Further surveies are required to measure the function of similar factors on other communities and the function of other factors on the African-American community.
- Is the linguistic communication used in the rubric apprehensible and enlightening?
Yes. the linguistic communication used in the rubric is simple. apprehensible and enlightening. Complicated words are rarely being used.
- Is the rubric clear and concise?
Yes. the rubric is clear and concise. It gives us an thought briefly of the jobs and the factors the survey is traveling to measure.
- Are research worker ( s ) makings presented?
Yes. the researches full makings are presented in the Abstract. Angela D. Banks is a Registered Nurse and has completed her PhD. Kathleen Dracup is besides a Registered Nurse and has done her DNSc ( Doctor of Nursing Science ) .
- Are research worker ( s ) qualified to carry on the research? Justify your reply.
Yes. both research workers are qualified to carry on research in this field. Emergency direction of acute myocardial infarction requires appropriate Nursing Services. Evidence-Based Nursing Management will assist work out jobs encountered by the nurses through: –
- Identifying the job utilizing current and appropriate nursing information and patterns.
- Searching relevant research informations for a suited option
- Analyzing the option for grounds utilizing standards established.
- Choosing the most appropriate intercession.
This survey is conducted utilizing scientific methods and current nursing cognition. The decision suggested is besides based on current medical grounds.
- Does the abstract contain adequate information about the survey so the reader understands kernel of article?
Yes. the abstract contains adequate information so as to give the reader an thought of the article.
- Does the abstract province the intent of the survey. jobs investigated. research inquiry or hypothesis. survey design and methods used. sample. instruments used. consequences or findings?
Yes the abstract brieflTitle of Articley states the intent of the survey. jobs investigated. research inquiry. hypothesis. survey design and methods used. sample. instruments used. consequences. It eve suggests ways the job can be solved.
- Is the abstract 100 to 200 words in length?
The abstract is about 225 words in length and is approximately within its bounds.
- Does the format of the article follow the research procedure?
Yes. the format follows the research procedure.
- Is the article organized and sufficiently concise?
No. the article is non well-organized. The article is concise.
- Is the article written utilizing right grammar and sentence construction?
Yes. the grammar is moderately right and the sentence construction is normal.
- Do cited mentions appear in mention list?
Yes. the mentions do look in the list.
- Are cited mentions current?
Some of the mentions are non current.
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