Schramn ( 2008 ) worked on e-learning web based system that could merely offer and rate mathematical inquiries with unmeasurable forbearance. ( Adebayo and Abdulhamid. 2009 ) said. it needs the capableness which requires for the input and end product of mathematical expressions. the dynamic coevals of secret plans and the coevals of random looks and Numberss.
( Al-Bayati and Hussein. 2008 ) presents an applied Generic Software of multiple sorts of E-Examination bundle ; this bundle of e-exam was designed and concerned with Hearing Impaired ( HI ) individuals ( i. e. people with weakened or reduced ability of hearing ) . Therefore the exam stuff of this bundle is translated into an apprehensible linguistic communication of HI individuals like mark linguistic communication and finger spelling. ( Olawale Adebayo and Shafi’I Muhammed Abdulhamid. 2009 ) said. The construct of the Generic package is to show an empty templets to the instructor who would wish to develop his needed E-Examination for the needed subject ( mathematics. linguistic communication. scientific discipline. etc ) and desired set of exam sorts ( multiple picks. fiting between words. fill in spaces. etc ) .
( Zhenming et al. 2003 ) worked on Web-based Examination System that provides an effectual solution for mass instruction rating. They developed a fresh online scrutiny system based on a Browser/Server model which carries out the scrutiny and auto-grading for nonsubjective inquiries and runing inquiries. such as programming. runing Microsoft Windows. redacting Microsoft Word. Excel and PowerPoint. etc. ( Adebayo and Abdulhamid. 2009 ) said it has been successfully applied to the distance rating of basic runing accomplishments of computing machine scientific discipline. such as the class of computing machine accomplishments in Universities and the countrywide scrutiny for the high school alumnuss in Zhejiang Province. China.
( Rashad et Al. 2010 ) proposed web based on-line scrutiny system. ( Adebayo and Abdulhamid. 2009 ) said that. The system carries out the scrutiny and auto-grading for pupils tests and that the system facilitates carry oning tests. aggregation of replies. car taging the entries and production of studies for the trial. Besides. it supports many sorts of inquiries and was used via Internet and is hence suited for both local and distant scrutiny.
They. said the system could assist lectors. teachers. instructors and others who are willing to make new tests or redact bing 1s every bit good as pupils take parting in the test in which they said the system was built utilizing assorted unfastened beginning engineerings AJAX. PHP. HTML and MYSQL database. They said. an auto-grading faculty was generalized to enable different test and inquiry types and the system was tested in the Mansoura university quality confidence centre. They said. the trial proved the cogency of utilizing this sort of web based systems for evaluates pupils in the establishments with high rate of pupils.
( EL Emary and Al Sondos. 2006 ) worked on an on-line web site for tutoring and e-examination of economic class aimed to show a novel package tool can be used for on-line scrutiny and tutorial application of the course of study of economic class ( Adebayo and Abdulhamid. 2009 ) said the proposed package is structured from two major faculties: The first 1 was an on-line web site to reexamine and do self-test for all the stuff of economic class. The 2nd portion is an on-line scrutiny utilizing a big database bank of inquiries through it the degree of pupils can be evaluated instantly and some statistical ratings can be obtained. They said. the developed package offers the undermentioned characteristics: 1 ) Teachers could add any farther inquiries to maximise the size of the bank of inquiries. 2 ) Different scrutinies for each pupil with indiscriminately selected inquiries from the bank of inquiries can be done.
3 ) Different studies for the teachers. pupils. classes…etc can be obtained.
4 ) Several pupils can take their tests at the same time without any job inside and outside their campus. He concluded that. the proposed package has been designed to work base on the client waiter architecture.
( Levy and Ramim. 2007 ) they proposed a theoretical attack that incorporates available fingerprint biometries hallmark engineerings in concurrence with E-learning environments to control unethical behavior during e-learning test pickings ( Adebayo and Abdulhamid. 2009 ) said the proposed attack suggests practical solution that can integrate a random fingerprint biometries user hallmark during test taking in E-learning classs and they concluded that making so is to command or restrict exam cheating in e-learning environments.
( Adebayo and Abdulhamid. 2009 ) describes the method of fixing the E-Examination inquiries. in which they said inquiries should be prepared by the lector in-charge and submitted to the decision maker whose duty is to come in pool of inquiries into the database every bit good as the timing set for the tests. They explained besides based on the consequence presentation/checking that most of the centres visited in his research work. make non give entree to pupils to see their consequences instantly which they said its 1 of the chief kernel of presenting E-Examinations but in our proposed system utilizing Bells University as a instance survey. the range is limited to non allowing pupils entree to sing their consequences instantly as a consequence of the concluding mandate or decision-making by the senates. Their methodological analysis was based on interviews and questionnaire and use-cases was used as their techniques for capturing the functional demands of a system.
They said that use-cases work by depicting the typical interactions between the users of a system and the system itself. supplying a narrative of how a system is used. They stated the challenges of the bing system ( i. e. E-Examination System ) which includes ; security. human intervention. unequal preparation for the pupils and staff. complexness of package. They concluded that the proposed system will decidedly cut down drastically the jobs such as human intervention. caricature. bribe-taking by talks. scrutiny escapes and besides cut down the figure of invigilators needed in this system. He recommends the future research of analyzing students’ attitudes and psychological facets associated with the proposed solution of e-exam user’s hallmark and besides the economical issues associated with execution of such solution.
Ayo et Al ( 2007 ) proposed a theoretical account for e-Examination in Nigeria where all appliers are subjected to online entryway scrutiny as a manner of controling the abnormalities as proposed by the Joint Admissions Matriculation Board ( JAMB ) . the organic structure saddled with the duty of carry oning entryway scrutinies into all the Nigerian universities. Their research work besides. was to look into the degree of ICT literacy of appliers. The theoretical account was designed and tested in Covenant University. one of the private universities in Nigeria. Their findings revealed that the system has the potencies to extinguish some of the jobs that are associated with the traditional methods of scrutiny such as caricature and other signifiers of scrutiny malpractices such as the monolithic scrutiny such as the monolithic scrutiny escapes. demand for satisfaction by instructors. bribe-taking by supervisors and invigilators of scrutinies which is now a planetary phenomenon and has resulted to the general fallen criterions of instruction and Nigeria is no exclusion. peculiarly among developing states.
They said that. many establishments are get downing to reassess their traditional methods and have considered supplying academic stuffs through the Internet. They said that Web-based testing and assessment systems offer greater flexibleness than the traditional attack because trial could be offered at different times by pupils and in different locations ( Jay. et al 2001 ) . They employed two research methods: First. an e-Examination system was designed and implemented.
The application was developed with the usage of HTML. PHP and MYSQL database for dynamism and tested on an Apache web waiter. hosted on the University intranet. The 2nd method was a research study carried out among the appliers. A set of questionnaire was designed and administered to appliers seeking admittance into Covenant University as a instance survey. The questionnaires were administered instantly after the scrutiny to the pupils to measure the adequateness of the system and inquiries and their degree of ICT literacy.
( Akinsanmi et al. 2010 ) . designed and developed a web application where trials in multiple pick formats will be taken on-line and graded instantly. Microsoft developed engineerings was used for the web application which runs on the Microsoft. cyberspace model. utilizing the ASP. NET web waiter. C # as the intermediate linguistic communication. ADO. Internet to interact with the relational database and Microsoft SQL waiter as the relational database.
M’hammed et Al ( 2007 ) worked on the challenges in distance acquisition unit. They observed that inefficient direction could take to a assortment of jobs in class bringing. such as holds in obtaining text editions. jobs in obtaining copyright permission. and even class holds. In an attempt to ease. streamline and better signifiers direction. a system was designed to streamline the direction of needed signifiers for face-to-face. loanblend. online and televised classs. The system developed provides module. and distance acquisition decision makers with an easy method to pull off all signifiers efficaciously and expeditiously.
Gaytan ( 2007 ) presented a elaborate historical background of on-line instruction. with respects to its current position. its potencies and restrictions that could take to the promotion of the scholarship of instruction and acquisition. He stressed the demand for on-line teachers to understand the manner on-line instruction has evolved over the old ages from old constructs of instruction and the broad array of deductions and premises involved in the bringing of on-line instruction. He besides presented some recommendations for the promotion of on-line instruction. The historical background of on-line instruction mentioned above revealed that. in order for on-line instruction to work efficaciously. it requires ( a ) a changeless and consistent version by all parties involved. ( B ) turn toing the fiscal challenges. ( degree Celsius ) progressive leading. ( vitamin D ) covering efficaciously with the political relations that get in the manner. and ( vitamin E ) much committedness from educational stakeholders ( Watkins. 1991 ) .
He said that the current position of on-line instruction besides reveals that there is an of import function that on-line direction dramas in the society and said the instructional quality involves the effectual integrating of engineering into the learning environment of the schoolroom. which besides requires a vision of what pupils must larn and be able to make. student battle. and a thorough apprehension of content cognition and effectual on-line bringing schemes by the teachers ( Larreamendy-Joerns & A ; Leinhardt. 2006 ) . He said that jobs will go on to emerge anytime that there is a difference in the manner online and face-to-face module are treated as respects to academic makings. research chances. salary. and rating standards and said such jobs must be addressed efficaciously to heighten the sustainability of on line instruction.
He demonstrated that on-line instruction is at least every bit effectual as face-to-face schoolroom direction by the fact that research workers have normally attempted to compare on-line and face-to-face classs in footings of larning effectivity by utilizing experimental. quasi-experimental. or causal comparative methodological analysiss and have found on-line direction to be at least every bit effectual as face-to-face instruction ( Bata-Jones & A ; Avery. 2004 ; Tallent-Runnels et Al. . 2006 ) . He explained the restrictions of instructional engineering such as the sensed deficiency of societal interaction and immediate feedback. inability to turn to the acquisition demands of a diverse group of pupils. deficiency of crystalline academic activities by for-profit online schools ( e. g. . sheepskin Millss ) . He said that the progressive online multimedia environment will continuously ease the effectual bringing of on-line direction because they mimic the kineticss involved in high-quality. face-to-face schoolroom direction.
For case. well-designed Internet-based instructional theoretical accounts will go on to boom because they support job resolution and let detail-oriented instructional counsel utilizing extremely structured undertakings ( Larreamendy-Joerns & A ; Leinhardt. 2006 ) . He recommended that. module must go to a great extent involved in the planning. design. and execution of online direction which must continuously prosecute in formal. scientific research that will take to the promotion of the scholarship of on-line instruction and acquisition. Besides. he recommended that. educational stakeholders must discontinue to mensurate the quality of on-line direction against criterions established for the face-to-face direction. He concluded by stating that. future research should concentrate on developing new scientific theoretical accounts for on-line instruction and acquisition. based upon sound research methodological analysiss instead than the module and pupil perceptual experiences or standard theoretical account for face-to-face direction ( Tallent Runnels et Al. . 200 ) .
( Francis Osang. 2012 ) studied academic staff ( lectors ) perceptual experience of E-Examinations in Nigeria in an ODL ( Open and Distance Learning ) which he took a critical expression at how the acceptance of electronic scrutiny have assisted National Open University of Nigeria ( NOUN ) in the rating stage of pupils study circle every bit good as the architecture for electronic scrutiny as implemented by NOUN. which can be used by any other ODL establishment. He administered 105 questionnaires to the academic staff based on the five schools to seeking their positions on their degree of computing machine literacy. E-Examinations disposal compared to the pen and paper scrutinies every bit good as the easiness of usage of the maple Ta platform presently being used by NOUN.
His findings revealed that 81. 9 % of the lectors are computing machine literate. while the staying 28. 4 % are still acquiring usage to basic computing machine use accomplishments which he implied that most academic staff ( lectors ) employed by NOUN are computing machine literate and hence should appreciate e-exams. He said that 63 % of the lectors found maple Ta ( the package used ) rather disputing while 47. 3 % found it really easy with clip after preparation. He resulted with the fact that lecturer’s attitude towards e-learning activities was seen because of the degree of proficient trouble and he besides stated some factors responsible for lecturer’s determination about the usage of ICT for instructional procedure which includes: demographic. experience in the usage of the engineering. rational sweetening. preparation. enabling environment and individual’s interception ( Fabry and Higgs. 1997 ; Keller and cernerud. 2002 ; Murphy and Greenwood. 1998 ; Samuel and Bakar. 2006 ) .
He concluded and said that E-Examination remains the best option for carry oning scrutinies in unfastened and distance acquisition establishments which he said would assist to extinguish the myriad of jobs associated with pen and paper tests such as scrutiny malpractice. human mistakes. in taging and digest of consequences. ill-timed release of consequences and decrease of the overpowering undertaking sometimes is experienced by lectors in managing such figure of pupils in unfastened and distance learning establishment.
His recommendations includes: the pattern of E-Examinations to the pen and paper scrutinies in unfastened and distance acquisition environment in Nigeria. the development and usage of essay type scrutiny which he said should be earnestly looked into and in conclusion. he said serious attending should be made when doing maple Ta ( which is a plan used to bring forth inquiries and class responses which are numerical. expressions. words etc. ) scripting which should be easy and more user friendly doing it compatible with Microsoft word applications. equation editor and other customize symbols.
( Dr Olubiyi Adeniyi Adewale and Timothy Olugbenga Ajadi. XXXX ) studied at measuring the perceptual experience of the pupils of NOUN on the scrutiny.
( Akinyemi et al. 2007 ) in which they indicated: The coming of web applications into the calculating engineering has brought about a important revolution in our societal life including the traditional system of instruction and scrutiny. Many establishments are get downing to reassess their traditional methods and have considered supplying pedagogical stuffs through the cyberspace. They said this tendency led to so many research plants on E-Examination every bit good as web based surveies. non merely in Nigeria but besides globally and these plants include Yuan. Z. Zhang. L. and Zhang G. ( 2003 ) . Jackson. D. and Usher. M. ( 1997 ) and Stina. B. Micahel. T. Stephen G. and Roberto T. ( 2000 ) .
They said most of these researches focus on the development of web-based testing and appraisal. particularly the building of inquiries of equal weight and randomisation of points on individual’s trial documents and said they overlooked the perceptual experience of the pupils which are the topics of this type of scrutiny. They stated three research inquiries to able to arouse pupils perceptual experience in which such inquiries were turned into three hypotheses. They presented the advantages of E-Examination:
? Removal of human mistakes involved in the procedure of scrutiny. ? The obliteration of the digest and physical motion of scrutiny books. particularly in the NOUN where we had to interchange scrutiny books between the 39 survey Centres to avoid the halo consequence and warrant the quality of the appraisal. ? It would besides eliminate scrutiny malpractice from the portion of the pupils. They made usage of the Tukey Post Hoc analysis which revealed that the difference of pupils perceptual experience lies on the decrease of scrutiny malpractice. broad coverage of strategy of work. student’s academic public presentation. age factor to the usage of IT and unequal installations.
They concluded that the Open and Distance Learning ( ODL ) requires more vivacious manner of carry oning an scrutiny and revealed from their findings that the usage of e-examination should be encouraged across all distance establishments since it will assist in cut downing scrutiny malpractice. increase students’ academic public presentation and had broad coverage of the strategy of work and enhance prompt release of students’ academic consequences. They recommended that in order to assist pupils with the usage of IT. particularly the older pupils. workshops should be organized for pupils which was said can be done through picture conferencing with the usage of headquarter as the base and they recommended the establishments to work towards holding its ain installations for the e-examinations. particularly personal computing machines and suggested that the centres with really high pupil registration should be concentrated on first before others.
( Kenneth Castro et Al. 2010 ) developed a computer-based entryway test for Liceo de Cagayan University ( LDCU ) . They said the proposed system would rush up the processing of the scrutiny thereby leting the examinee/examiner/ section president to acquire the consequences fast. Their user interface was developed utilizing PHP as front-end and MY SQL for back-end in order to set up a connexion between LDCU Intranet Examination System and the database. They said that mechanization is designed to maximise efficiency. convenience. and quality services offered and said it is undeniable that mechanization is a batch faster compared to the traditional manner of making a occupation which requires much attempt. They stated that there are a assortment of facets demands to be taken into history when deploying a web-based appraisal and such includes ; package quality. secure bringing. dependable web ( if Internet-based ) . capacities. support. care. package costs for development and trial bringing. and licences.
They cited ( Soft. 2009 ) whose survey was anchored on the construct that the class or motion of information in a procedure flows through a series of undertakings that have set of regulations or determination points based on the Input-Process-Output Model. and besides cited ( Santos. et Al. 2007 ) stating the flow of informations of the system from chief entities through out the full system is shown by symbols that represent the different maps. Their proposed system is limited to pupils who want to inscribe in Liceo de Cagayan University and the scrutiny can merely be taken inside the designated country and merely the tester is given the authorization to run the computing machines. Students in this instance were given 45mins to reply 72 random inquiries. Besides. the entryway scrutiny system is activated upon the enrollment of the testee by the tester and the exam consequence is automatically generated right after the exam entry by the testee but merely the decision maker or tester and the president can see and publish the exam consequences.
They used the coiling theoretical account for the proposed system. the theoretical account started with planning and the flow of the survey was planned carefully. The following measure they took was the assemblage of informations from the cyberspace. books. and diaries as bases for the system design in which after the design the system was tested in order to guarantee that the consequence or achievement satisfies the declared aims. They concluded that the Intranet Entrance Examination works every bit designed and that the system provides fast and easy manner of taking an entryway test on the portion of the testee. a convenient manner of administrating the test on the portion of the tester. and a speedy manner of acquiring the exam consequences on the portion of the testee and the president. They provided a system which serves as a back file that connects to the chief waiter of the campus for safety steps. They recommended the followers: ? The proposed system be implemented by the school to heighten the disposal of the entryway test ? Administrator be provided at least one computing machine as waiter ? The tester be provided 50 computing machines during the test to avoid system clang. ? The scrutiny be taken in the country provided and
? The system be put online.
( Rufai M. M. Adigun J. O. N. A. Yekini. 2012 ) proposed a “ Biometric Model for Examination Screening and Attendance Monitoring in Yaba College of Technology” which proffers solution to the job of pupil caricature during tests. A biometric theoretical account is designed to place every applier at the point of entry into the scrutiny hall. A biometric confirmation exercising is besides conducted while the scrutiny is traveling and at the point of entry of scrutiny documents. The students’ attending is captured automatically as their individuality is verified on the biometric systems. The Biometric Access Control Techniques was explained and the theoretical account depicting its application to examination showing and attending monitoring was designed utilizing denotational mathematics.
They recommended that more plants need to be done in germinating a more robust animateness sensing algorithm that eliminate the danger of burlesquing and vouch a true designation of the user. They designed a Biometric Model for Examination Screening and Attendance Monitoring utilizing Finite State Automata Theory and they concluded by stating that Biometric Access is a better replacement for the usage of Identity card in verifying users individuality and besides said the naturalness in the usage of fingerprint makes it a dependable entree control technique and stated the fact that a user no longer needs to transport individuality cards and other paperss for designation which explains the easiness of usage and see to the hereafter work in implementating the proposed theoretical account in Examination Halls.