Danish Film Essay, Research Paper
I. DANISH FILM
It was in June 7 1896 when Danes saw cinematographic images for the first clip at the Haymarket ( Town Hall Square now ) in Copenhagen, but the first film ( Kosmorama ) was non opened until September 17,1904.At that clip it was usual to hold a pianist playing while the movie was shown because of the noise from the projector.
Peter Elfelt ( 1866-1931 ) is a movie innovator in Denmark with some movies about Greenland and royalty.
Ole Olsen created Nordisk Film Kompagni, the first Danish movie company, in 1906. The most popular movies at the clip were comedies of different types.
In the first decennary of the twentieth century, Paladsteatret, the largest film in Northern Europe was built in Copenhagen. There an orchestra replaced the former piano player.
With World War I, movie companies had to confront some jobs, but Danish movie made some of import steps.For case, Asta Nielsen shortly became the first European female movie star and unreal lightning was introduced in film-making.
In 1919, Carl Theodore Dreyer started his calling with The president. He is still considered one of the greatest Danish movie managers of all times.
In order to win in the foreign market, Nordisk made some movies based on Charles Dickens+ works, but they were non successful outside Denmark, so the company lost much money.
In 1920 Robert Storm Petersen ( Storm P. ) directed the first animated movie made in Denmark, and two old ages after, sound was introduced in Danish movie. The Vicar of Vejlby is the first long-talking movie in Denmark.
Cinema proprietors spent much money in equipment with the passage from silent to sound movies, and, at the same clip, foreign movies started to be dubbed or to hold captions in order to be understood. The first system was more a German than a Danish tradition and it did non hold much success.
The decennary of 1930 is a period of passage, with economic jobs and artistically hapless, even if the nomadic camera was introduced at that clip. Benjamin Christensen is one of the greatest managers of that clip, but Paul Henningsen is besides of import for holding started a new type of movie: docudrama.
Then, Germany occupied Denmark and that fact profoundly affected movie production and success. At the beginning ( 1940 ) , more and more people went to the film, but in 1943 that figure decreased. There were many limitations in the sort of movies that could be shown: it was non allowed to import movies from states in war with Germany, and British and American movies were banned. That fact, together with the abolishment of constabulary force and the decrease of the public conveyance, caused the decrease in the figure of Danes traveling to the film.
On the other manus, that was a good period for Danish movie. The sort of movies produced in that minute can be classified under 3 classs: dreamer amusement, loyal movies, and ambitious movies.
In 1942, the experimental movie was born with Plugten, directed by A. Mertz and J*rgen Roos.
After World War II, cinema attending increased once more ( in 1939, 28.1 million tickets were sold, and in 1945 the entire sum was 47 million ) , but the good minute national production had experienced ended when it was possible to watch foreign movies once more. However, it was now possible to openly talk about political relations, and it has left its influence in the film, with some movies about the war and the German business. But many amusement
movies were produced and the documental movies continued to be successful.
Then the movie industry started to seek for support in order to vie with foreign movies, and there were some steps like the revenue enhancement freedom or decrease.
Cinema attending grew until the terminal of 1953, but so it started to diminish, largely due to the progress of telecasting. Cinemas found more hard to do a net income and some of them had to shut. Small film started to be replaced by bigger 1s with technological progresss ( cinemascope, widescreen ) .
In December 1949 the amusement revenue enhancement was reduced to 25 % for Danish movies. In the 50s there were movie censors appointed by the Government. Even if it was rare for a movie to be banned, scenes of gender and force were frequently cut, and two age bounds ( 12 and 16 ) were set.
By 1950 the four old companies ( Nordisk, Paladium, ASA and Saga ) were still runing. A new one, Flamingo Film, was founded.
From 1950 to 1964, comedy was the most produced type of movie. In 1956, the first characteristic coloring material movie was made in Denmark: Kisss, by Erik Baling.
Palle Kj rulf-Schmidt, Carl Th. Dreyer, J*rgen Roos, Bjarne Henning-Jensen and Henning Carlsen are of import names of this period.
The first half of the 50s decennary was profitable for movie manufacturers due to the decrease in amusement revenue enhancement and the popularity of movies produced during that clip. The boycott against Danish film ( which did non hold to pay more money for movie leases ) established by American distributers besides contributed to the success of Danish movie.
But when American movies came back in 1958, the good clip for Danish production companies ended and more films had to shut.
A demand for Government support started to turn, and in 1964 a new movie act was created. The amusement revenue enhancement was so abolished and 15 % responsibility on every ticket went to allow money for several intents: instruction of movie technicians, movie production, composing of books
In 1966 the Danish Film School was created.
Many production companies closed in that period, and in 1972 merely 3 of them were still working: Nordisk, Danish Film Studio and Risby Studios.
The movie act of 1964 was particularly positive for the experimental movie shapers.
In 1968, Danish telecasting and movie companies reached an understanding: movie companies would have money from 20 Danish movies showed in telecasting. This was negative for film proprietors.
The movie act was replaced in 1972 by a new one which took into history the involvements of film proprietors, but that did non forestall many little films to shut their doors.
This act besides considered the artistic facets of a movie and non merely the trade. The ticket responsibility was abolished and the former Film Foundation became the Danish Film Institute, supported by the Government. Young managers found it really easy to happen support for their undertakings.
The Film School had already trained some people who started to work in the seventies: Bille August, Edward Fleming, Morten Arnfred, Nils Malmros
However, fiscal jobs were increasing because movie production was going more and more expensive and the popularity of video tape recording equipment earnestly damaged the film proprietors.
In 1970 a Workshop was established by the Film Foundation and many immature people had a opportunity to direct, but, as the movies became more and more politically agitative, the Government closed it at the terminal of the century.