“Strategic Planning is inextricably interwoven into the full cloth of direction ; it is non something separate and distinguishable from the procedure of management” ( Steiner. 1979:7 ) . In simpler footings. Steiner goes on farther to explicate how Strategic Planning is an organisational direction activity. This activity is used in order to put precedences. concentrate energy. strengthen operations. guarantee common ends are met. set up understanding about intended outcomes/results. and assesses/adjust the organization’s way in response to a altering environment. Mintzberg. ( 2000 ) denotes that when strategic planning arrived on the scene. in the mid 1960’s. corporate leaders embraced it as “the one best way” to invent and implement schemes that would heighten the fight of each concern unit. Throughout this essay. empirical grounds along with sound academic theories will be used in order to critically analyze the subject of Strategic Planning.
Furthermore. alternate technique’s adopted by other business’ will so besides be identified and analysed. before reasoning this essay by discoursing ‘the best’ technique for Business to use. and why. Harmonizing to work by Dettmer. ( 2003 ) Mintzberg et al originally identified 10 schools of strategic idea. with each single school differing in its premises. features and countries of accent. Dettmer elaborates on Mintzberg’s theory and explains how the first 3 schools are rather different to the staying 7. these schools are the design. planning and placement schools of idea. These specific schools are said to be normative. deliberate and mostly nonsubjective. With this is head. it is clear to see that Strategic be aftering falls into mintzberg’s ‘Planning’ school of idea as it is described as a formal procedure. by which. “A strict set of stairss are taken. from the analysis state of affairs to the executing of the strategy” ( Pettigrew and Thomas et Al. 2002:423 )
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With over 275 companies runing in over 60 states throughout the universe. ( Jnj. com. 2014 ) . ‘Johnson & A ; Johnson Family of Companies’ have established themselves as a extremely successful Multi National Enterprise that operates utilizing a strategic planning procedure. Harmonizing to the fiscal web site affiliated with Johnson & A ; Johnson ( investor. jnj. 2014 ) ; Executive direction alongside the Board of Directors are the people responsible for puting the cardinal strategic way of the Company to stay a broadly-based human wellness attention company for the consumer. Johnson & A ; Johnson’s Strategic planning is guided by ethical rules tailored towards uniting consumers worldwide whilst keeping a set of common values and supplying a changeless reminder of the Company’s duties to all of its components. J & A ; J’s strategic planning procedure sees them keep Board and Committee meetings on an ongoing footing throughout the twelvemonth in order to discourse the strategic way and major developments of the Company’s assorted concerns.
J & A ; J shows how strategic planning is still used as a really utile tool for a company to utilize in order to keep clear way and long term focal point. In this peculiar instance. strategic be aftering seems to hold been really successful for Johnson and Johnson as their 2013 Full-Year Gross saless saw them hit “ $ 71. 3 Billion” ( J & A ; J. 2014:12 ) . an addition of 6. 1 % from the old twelvemonth. Yet another transnational endeavor that chooses to keep its usage strategic planning in order to develop its organizational scheme is Shell. Shell opt for the ‘scenario planning’ attack. Harmonizing to their web site ; Shell. ( 2014 ) this attack entails Shell to continuously develop specific scenarios and they have been making so. in order to research the hereafter since the early 1970s. Scenario planning sees scenarios put in topographic point to see a scope of plausible hereafters and how these could emerge from the worlds of today. Shell maintains their strategic planning procedure aswell as documenting it through their one-year release of a papers by the name of ‘New Lens Scenarios’ . Harmonizing to the CEO of Shell. Mr Peter Voyer. the New Lens Scenarios are portion of an on-going procedure used in shell for the last 40 old ages. they are used in order to dispute executives’ positions on the hereafter concern environment and are based on plausible premises and quantification. designed to stretch direction to see even events that may be merely remotely possible. Voyer. ( 2014 ) .
Voyer goes on to explicate how one illustration of a New Lens scenario presently being discussed at Shell is the demand addition for necessities such as H2O and energy by the twelvemonth 2030. By 2030. Shell expects demand for critical resources like H2O. energy. and nutrient to hold risen by 40 % -50 % . In order to run into these demands without important environmental hurt. Shell believe that they need to safely and sufficiently put in program. processs that will finally see them wholly transform the energy system. This is a farther illustration of how a transnational endeavor uses strategic planning in its twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours development of its overall concern scheme. With strategic be aftering come its strengths.
Armstrong. ( 2003 ) denotes that the usage of a well-drawn strategic program does good for at least five to seven old ages. with uninterrupted monitoring required to see that no divergences creep. Strategic planning is of import in many companies for many grounds: First of all it helps administrations to set up ends. Strategic plans let directors cognize the way in which they are continuing ; it so helps place future spiels hence helping direction set ends and marks for the company. Houben. et Al ( 1999 ) denote that Strategic planning in the signifier of Environmental Scans ( PEST/PESTEL/SWOT analysis ) are able to take stock of its internal and external environment. It acquaints itself with its competences. failings. chances and hazards. It so takes the appropriate stairss to leverage on its competences and chances and still its failings and hazards. Furthermore strategic planning besides aids concerns in sufficient allotment of its resources. It is able to contrast the handiness of the resources with the existent demands for the resources. It so transfers them from topographic points where they are available in copiousness to countries where they are needed instantly.
Finally. Houben summarises by explicating how strategic planning helps companies to Budget. Budgeting means that the organisation is able to be after and budget for the hereafter. When the organisation knows in progress what it aims to accomplish in the following two old ages. is able to take pertinent steps for it.
On the other manus. strategic planning can besides been seen as a negative thing for companies to set about. Although a sense of way is of import. it can besides smother creativeness. particularly if it is stiffly enforced. Camillus. ( 1986 ) explains how. in an unsure and equivocal universe. fluidness can be more of import than a finely tuned strategic compass. Therefore strategic planning can frequently go inflexible and focused excessively mu8ch on the hereafter. as opposed to the company’s current state of affairs. ( Grungig and Kuhn et Al. 2005 ) travel on to farther discourse possible booby traps. with such as the thoughts that. future anticipations ( no affair how in deepness and rational ) can still be incorrect. hence bing the company in the long term.
They go on to explicate how strategic procedures can frequently go really resource intensifier. frequently necessitating big sums of clip. informations and money. A concluding pitfall/weakness of utilizing strategic planning could be that of delimited reason. ( Simon 1997 ) explains how determination shapers ( irrespective of their degree of intelligence ) still merely possess limited capacity to measure and treat the information that is available to them. Besides. with merely a limited sum of clip available to do a determination. persons who intend to do rational picks are bound to do satisficing picks in complex state of affairss.
As earlier mentioned. Strategic be aftering falls into Mintzberg’s ‘Planning’ school of idea. nevertheless it is of import to observe that other theories. in separate schools of idea besides exist. For case we besides have Emergent scheme. Emergent scheme is summarised by Hill. C. . W. . L. and Jones. G. . R. . ( 2008 ) as the unplanned responses to unanticipated fortunes. Emergent scheme is the procedure of placing unexpected results from the executing of corporate scheme and so larning to incorporate those unexpected results into future corporate programs. An illustration of a company that uses emergent scheme is IKEA. Harmonizing to ( Hill. C. . W. . L. and Jones. G. . R. . ( 2008 ) . IKEA’S first end over clip was to supply fashionable functional designs with minimalist lines that could be cost-efficiently manufactured under contract by providers and priced low plenty to let most of people to afford purchase their merchandises. However over clip. and due to grounds such as merchandise amendss ( 1950’s ) . and cost customization. IKEA emerged with new schemes such as self-service choice up. alteration in makers. and most notably. self-assembly level battalion merchandises.
Bremm and Voigt ( 2008 ) explicate how emergent schemes can be good to a company as it frequently plays a critical portion in the promotion of the engineering being offered in the market place. When companies refine and develop their merchandises. they look for new characteristics to offer that let their merchandises to stand out from the competition. Furthermore. in following an emergent scheme. it could be result in detecting something before rivals. taking to a competitory advantage. However on the other manus. Gamble and Thompson. ( 2009 ) suggest that the disadvantage to emergent scheme is the inability of some companies to be after decently for it and the harm it can make to the organisational construction A farther attack adopted by companies is known as the nucleus competence theory. Prahalad. C. K. and Hamel. G. ( 1990 ) depict how nucleus competences are peculiar strengths relative to other organisations in the industry. which provide the cardinal footing for the proviso of added value An illustration of success by nucleus competence is that of Canon.
Cannon grew really quickly to crush Xerox with a scope of nucleus merchandises including image scanners. optical maser pressmans. duplicators. and cameras. based on nucleus competences in preciseness mechanics. all right optics. and microelectronics. Galon et Al. . ( 1999 ) identifies cardinal strengths of the Core competence theory. said strengths include ; Core Competencies being packages of accomplishments and engineerings that are really hard or impossible to fit. therefore they are really organisation particular. Such competences are really much unique to the peculiar organisation and to the peculiar industry. in which the organisation operates. Therefore. Galon subsequently goes on to explicate how. when applied through corporate operational procedures to make merchandises and services. nucleus competences make a critical part to corporate fight Collins. J. ( 2001 ) on the other manus. discusses possible failings of this theory. such as the fact that Core competence needs intense human attempt over the old ages and important investing in R & A ; D and substructure.
The nucleus competence will merely decompose off if it is non invariably maintained. Equally good as the fact that the nucleus competencies non merely have to configure the bing value ironss of the company but besides to research new value ironss to seek new clients in same concern line. this can frequently intend that administrations lose path of external environment as it is a really inward looking theory. Taking into history all of the above theories that have been discussed. there is besides room for a blended attack. and Organisations frequently pursue what Mintzberg describes as ‘umbrella’ schemes ( Mintzberg. 1994. pp. 24-26 ) . This is where the wide lineation of the planning stage are calculated. while the inside informations are allowed to emerge within them. Mintzberg subsequently on in the chapter goes on to explicate how. good. effectual schemes mix features in ways that reflect the conditions at manus. notably the ability to foretell every bit good as the demand to respond to certain events. Similarly. contrary to Porter’s position of all companies should follow a 1 scheme attack and ‘nail’ it ( Porter. 1980:220 ) . James Quinn is an advocator of the Dual Approach theory ; this theory sees companies adopt more than one theory of planning.
A company that is presently following this scheme is Singapore Airlines. Harmonizing to the Harvard Business reappraisal ( Heracleous and Witz. 2010 ) Singapore air hoses operate with a double attack of cost leading. and high quality. This has seen Singapore air hoses excel in countries such as profitableness. client satisfaction. cost per kilometer and so on. This is an illustration of how sometimes it is non necessary to run utilizing merely one attack. To reason. throughout this piece of work a scope of different theories have been discussed. analyzing both their strengths and booby traps. One thing that has become copiously clear nevertheless is the point that. the scheme used by a company. is mostly dependent on which industry they operate within. and what works for one company. may non needfully work for another. What has become really evident from the research is that no affair which scheme a company adopts. they must ever consciously continue to listen to their mark consumers and non lose sight of what they want.
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